The extinction of the main Medici dynasty and the accession in 1737 of Francis Stephen, Duke of Lorraine and husband of Maria Theresa of Austria, led to Tuscany's temporary inclusion in the territories of the Austrian crown. [10] The city's numerous luxurious palazzi were becoming surrounded by townhouses built by the prospering merchant class.[11]. After Lorenzo's death, the puritanical Dominican friar Girolamo Savonarola rose to prominence, warning Florentines against excessive luxury. [25] Francesco and Ferdinando, due to lax distinction between Medici and Tuscan state property, are thought to have been wealthier than their ancestor, Cosimo de' Medici, the founder of the dynasty. He was interred in the Basilica of San Lorenzo, the Medici's necropolis. [citation needed], The Medici additionally benefited from the discovery of vast deposits of alum in Tolfa in 1461. The first grand duke of the new dynasty, Francis I, was a great-great-great-grandson of Francesco I de' Medici, thus he continued the Medicean Dynasty on the throne of Tuscany through the female line. [30] Upon the death of the last Duke of Urbino (Francesco Maria II), instead of claiming the duchy for Ferdinando, who was married to the Duke of Urbino's granddaughter and heiress, Vittoria della Rovere, they permitted it to be annexed by Pope Urban VIII. [22] To augment the Tuscan silk industry, he oversaw the planting of mulberry trees along the major roads (silk worms feed on mulberry leaves). He groomed the headstrong Piero II to follow as his successor in civil leadership; Giovanni[18] (future Pope Leo X) was placed in the church at an early age; and his daughter Maddalena was provided with a sumptuous dowry to make a politically advantageous marriage to a son of Pope Innocent VIII that cemented the alliance between the Medici and the Roman branches of the Cybo and Altoviti families. It has also been argued that these coins referenced the three coins or golden balls associated with St. Nicholas, particularly as the saint was invoked by Italian bankers as they took oaths. [70], Coat of Arms of the Grand-Duke of Tuscany, Coat of Arms of Catherine of Medici, as Queen of France, Coat of Arms of Maria of Medici, as Queen of France, Coat of arms of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany (1562-1737), "Medicis" redirects here. So, another fanciful story depicts the balls as pills or cupping glasses (a late-medieval medical instrument used to draw blood). Perhaps God wills that this war, which began in the blood of my brother and of myself, should be ended by any means. [16] These three members of the Medici family had great skills in the management of so "restive and independent a city" as Florence. The deaths of Alessandro and Ippolito enabled the Medici's "junior" branch to lead Florence. Op deze manier wordt de warmte en authenticiteit van een natuursteen vloer optimaal toegepast voor de inrichting van moderne villa's of landhuizen [35] At that time, the economy was so decrepit that barter trade became prevalent in rural market places. Only Great Britain and the Dutch Republic gave any credence to it, and the plan ultimately died with Cosimo III in 1723.[41]. Detailed Synonyms for Medici in English. Azure, three fleurs-de-lis or) was granted by Louis XI in 1465. The conspirators approached Sixtus IV in the hopes of gaining his approval, as he and the Medici had a long rivalry themselves, but the pope gave no official sanction to the plan. In 1534, following a lengthy illness, Pope Clement VII died – and with him the stability of the Medici's "senior" branch. Pope Leo X would chiefly commission works from Raphael, whereas Pope Clement VII commissioned Michelangelo to paint the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel just before the pontiff's death in 1534. [27] Ferdinando's pro-papal foreign policy, however, had drawbacks. The family originated in the Mugello region of Tuscany, and prospered gradually until it was able to fund the Medici Bank. Giovanni's son Cosimo the Elder, Pater Patriae (father of the country), took over in 1434 as gran maestro (the unofficial head of the Florentine Republic). De motivatie voor het oprichten van de vereniging was tweeledig: This page was last edited on 10 January 2021, at 23:42. Florence remained a republic until 1537, traditionally marking the end of the High Renaissance in Florence, but the instruments of republican government were firmly under the control of the Medici and their allies, save during intervals after 1494 and 1527. In 15th-century Renaissance Florence, the visionary Medici dynasty flexes its power in politics and the arts, risking its rivals' lethal opposition. Medici - WordReference English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums. Wij kijken er alvast naar uit jullie te mogen verwelkomen. Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici, called "the Elder" and posthumously "Father of the Fatherland", was an Italian banker and politician, the first member of the Medici family which effectively ruled Florence during much of the Italian Renaissance. Acting, Distant cousin of Alessandro de' Medici, Son of. Cosimo in turn patronized Vasari, who erected the Uffizi Gallery in 1560 and founded the Accademia delle Arti del Disegno – ("Academy of the Arts of Drawing") in 1563. [5] In 1532, the family acquired the hereditary title Duke of Florence. Their support was critical, since artists generally only began work on their projects after they had received commissions. I have decided, with your approval, to sail for Naples immediately, believing that as I am the person against whom the activities of our enemies are chiefly directed, I may, perhaps, by delivering myself into their hands, be the means of restoring peace to our fellow-citizens. Een man schoot hem te hulp en verdedigde de keizer heldhaftig met zijn schild. One unproven story traces their ancestry to a knight of Charlemagne's, Averardo, who defeated a giant, Mugello. Clement VII's tumultuous pontificate was dominated by a rapid succession of political crises – many long in the making – that resulted in the sack of Rome by the armies of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1527 and rise of the Salviati, Altoviti and Strozzi as the leading bankers of the Roman Curie. Ferdinando also sponsored a Tuscan expedition to the New World with the intention of establishing a Tuscan colony, an enterprise that brought no result for permanent colonial acquisitions. In addition to commissions for art and architecture, the Medici were prolific collectors and today their acquisitions form the core of the Uffizi museum in Florence. A political family drama set in Florence in the early fifteenth century. But in 1298, one of the leading banking families of Europe, the Bonsignoris, went bankrupt, and the city of Siena lost its status as the banking center of Italy to Florence. In France, Marie de' Medici was acting as regent for her son, Louis XIII. [14] Involvement in another plot in 1400 caused all branches of the family to be banned from Florentine politics for twenty years, with the exception of two. She lived the rest of her life deprived of any political influence. De’ Medici zijn oorspronkelijk afkomstig uit Mugello, een dal in de buurt van Florence.Een oude legende vertelt dat Karel de Grote bij zijn terugkeer uit Rome in het jaar 800 door dit dal reed, toen hij plotseling werd aangevallen door barbaren. The main challengers to the Albizzi family were the Medici, first under Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, later under his son Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici and great-grandson, Lorenzo de' Medici. Duchess Violante of Bavaria, Gian Gastone's sister-in-law, tried to withdraw the grand duke from the sphere of influence of the Ruspanti by organising banquets. Medici is the plural of medico, meaning "medical doctor". Despite all of these incentives for economic growth and prosperity, the population of Florence at the dawn of the 17th century was a mere 75,000, far smaller than the other capitals of Italy: Rome, Milan, Venice, Palermo and Naples. De kogels van de’ Medici. [19], The Pazzi conspiracy of 1478 was an attempt to depose the Medici family by killing Lorenzo with his younger brother Giuliano during Easter services; the assassination attempt ended with the death of Giuliano and an injured Lorenzo. Eldest son of Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. In comparison to the 17th century, the population of Florence declined by 50%, and the population of the grand duchy as a whole declined by an estimated 40%. 2. fig. As I have had more honour and responsibility among you than any private citizen has had in our day, I am more bound than any other person to serve our country, even at the risk of my life. The family's influence grew with its patronage of wealth, art, and culture. The Medici Bank, from when it was created in 1397 to its fall in 1494, was one of the most prosperous and respected institutions in Europe, and the Medici family was considered the wealthiest in Europe for a time. Leo X's fun-loving pontificate bankrupted Vatican coffers and accrued massive debts. A powerful Italian family of bankers and merchants whose members effectively ruled Florence for much of the 15th century and from 1569 were grand dukes of Tuscany. [28] Cosimo died of consumption (tuberculosis) in 1621. Cosimo the Elder's notable artistic associates were Donatello and Fra Angelico. I go full of hope, praying to God to give me grace to perform what every citizen should at all times be ready to perform for his country. When Lorenzo died in 1492, however, his son Piero proved quite incapable of responding successfully to challenges caused by the French invasion of Italy in 1492, and within two years, he and his supporters were forced into exile and replaced with a republican government. This led to the transfer of Medici blood, through Catherine's daughters, to the royal family of Spain through Elisabeth of Valois, and the House of Lorraine through Claude of Valois. Medicin betyder omtrent det samme som Lægekunst.Se alle synonymer nedenfor. Ultimately, it reached its zenith in the papacy and continued to flourish for centuries afterward as Dukes of Florence and Tuscany. Geschiedenis en oprichting: In oktober 2017 is de Vereniging Medici van de Antillen, oftewel de Asosiashon Mediko di Antias (AMA) in het leven geroepen. Cosimo purchased a portion of the island of Elba from the Republic of Genoa and based the Tuscan navy there. Unlike his father, Piero had little interest in the arts. They and other families of Italy inspired the Italian Renaissance, such as the Visconti and Sforza in Milan, the Este in Ferrara, the Borgia in Rome, and the Gonzaga in Mantua. Elke dag wordt er een uitgebreid ontbijtbuffet met warme gerechten geserveerd, waaronder roerei met spek. Francesco married Johanna of Austria, and with his consort produced Eleonora de' Medici, Duchess of Mantua, and Marie de' Medici, Queen of France and Navarre. Minerva, Mercury and Pluto pay homage to the Electress Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici, The Medieval World – Europe 1100–1350 by Friedrich Heer, 1998 Germany. In 1536, Alessandro de' Medici married Charles V's daughter, Margaret of Austria; however, the following year he was assassinated by a resentful cousin, Lorenzino de' Medici. Following the assassination of Duke Alessandro, power passed to the "junior" Medici branch — those descended from Lorenzo the Elder, the youngest son of Giovanni di Bicci, starting with his great-great-grandson Cosimo I "the Great." They were among the earliest businesses to use the general ledger system of accounting through the development of the double-entry bookkeeping system for tracking credits and debits. The House of Medici (Italian: [ˈmɛːditʃi] MED-ee-chee) was an Italian banking family and political dynasty that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the first half of the 15th century. Father of, Cousin of Lorenzo II de' Medici, Duke of Urbino, son of. [44] Following a sprained ankle in 1731, he remained confined to his bed for the rest of his life. Vi fandt 74 synonymer for medicin.Se nedenfor hvad medicin betyder og hvordan det bruges på dansk. Galileo's patronage was eventually abandoned by Ferdinando II, when the Inquisition accused Galileo of heresy. The Medici produced four Popes of the Catholic Church—Pope Leo X (1513–1521), Pope Clement VII (1523–1534), Pope Pius IV (1559–1565)[4] and Pope Leo XI (1605)—and two queens of France—Catherine de' Medici (1547–1589) and Marie de' Medici (1600–1630). Like other families ruling in Italian signorie, the Medici dominated their city's government, were able to bring Florence under their family's power, and created an environment in which art and humanism flourished. Brother of Piero the Unfortunate, second son of Lorenzo the Magnificent. To ensure the continuance of his family's success, Lorenzo planned his children's future careers for them. It provided the Roman Catholic Church with four popes (Leo X, Clement VII, Pius IV, and Leon XI) and married into the royal families of Europe. Basat en el projecte OpenThesaurus-ca. With Daniel Sharman, Alessandra Mastronardi, Synnove Karlsen, Sebastian De Souza. Tuscany was overrun with religious orders, not all of whom were obliged to pay taxes. With this intention I now go. The electress donated much of her fortune to charity: £4,000 a month. [69], Old coat of arms of the Medici used by Giovanni di Bicci and Cosimo the Elder, The intermediate coat of arms of the Medici, Or, six balls in orle gules, The "augmented coat of arms of the Medici, Or, five balls in orle gules, in chief a larger one of the arms of France (viz. At least half, probably more, of Florence's people were employed by the Medici and their foundational branches in business. Despite his refusal of official approval, the pope nonetheless allowed the plot to proceed without interfering, and, after the failed assassination of Lorenzo, also gave dispensation for crimes done in the service of the church. The Medici became the city's leading family, a position they would hold for the next three centuries. Another outstanding figure of the 16th-century Medici family was Cosimo I, who rose from relatively modest beginnings in the Mugello to attain supremacy over the whole of Tuscany. Sinònims de «medi» en català.Diccionari de sinònims de català en línia. Under Savonarola's fanatical leadership, many great works were "voluntarily" destroyed in the Bonfire of the Vanities (February 7, 1497). He was called "Piero the Gouty" because of the gout that pained his foot and led to his death. Austria and Spain were ruled by the House of Habsburg; the two are interchangeable terms for the Habsburg domains in the time period in question. [40] Cosimo desperately tried to reach a settlement with the European powers, but Tuscany's legal status was very complicated: the area of the grand duchy formerly comprising the Republic of Siena was technically a Spanish fief, while the territory of the old Republic of Florence was thought to be under imperial suzerainty. Ferdinando's successor, Cosimo II, reigned for less than 12 years. The name in Italian is pronounced with the stress on the first syllable /ˈmɛ .di.tʃi/ and not on the second vowel. Cosimo and Lorenzo de' Medici were notable rulers and patrons of the arts in Florence; the family also provided four popes (including Leo X ) and two queens of France (Catherine de' Medici and Marie de Médicis ). [34] The war effort was costly and the treasury so empty because of it that when the Castro mercenaries were paid for, the state could no longer afford to pay interest on government bonds, with the result that the interest rate was lowered by 0.75%. [42] On 25 October 1723, six days before his death, Grand Duke Cosimo disseminated a final proclamation commanding that Tuscany stay independent: Anna Maria Luisa would succeed uninhibited to Tuscany after Gian Gastone, and the grand duke reserved the right to choose his successor. [22] To strengthen the new Franco-Tuscan alliance, he married his niece, Marie, to Henry IV of France. Medici: Medici; English. Eldest son of Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. However, the Medici family did afford the scientist a safe haven for many years. He married Maria Maddalena of Austria, with whom he had his eight children, including Margherita de' Medici, Ferdinando II de' Medici, and an Anna de' Medici. [8] The dynasty began with the founding of the Medici Bank in Florence in 1397. What are synonyms for Medici? Tenmidden ligt Golden Tulip Hotel De'Medici, op enkele minuten wandelafstand van de grote markt met het beroemde Belfort. Ferdinando died in 1609, leaving an affluent realm; his inaction in international affairs, however, would have long-reaching consequences down the line. Lorenzo I, bijgenaamd il Magnifico (Florence, 1 januari 1449 – Careggi, 8 april 1492) was een van de beroemdste leden van het geslacht de’ Medici, en heerste over de Florentijnse Republiek tijdens het hoogtepunt van de Italiaanse renaissance.. Levensloop. For the pharmaceutical company, see. Although he never held any political office, he gained strong popular support for the family through his support for the introduction of a proportional system of taxation. From this base, they acquired political power initially in Florence and later in wider Italy and Europe. [45] In January 1737, the Spanish troops withdrew from Tuscany, and were replaced by Austrians. The Medicis' wealth and influence was initially derived from the textile trade guided by the wool guild of Florence, the Arte della Lana. Cosimo and Lorenzo rarely held official posts but were the unquestioned leaders. The restoration of the republic would entail resigning Siena to the Holy Roman Empire, but, regardless, it was vehemently endorsed by his government. He is most remembered as the patron of astronomer Galileo Galilei, whose 1610 treatise, Sidereus Nuncius, was dedicated to him. Pius II granted the Medici family a monopoly on the mining there, making them the primary producers of alum in Europe.[20]. In later years, the most significant protégé of the Medici family was Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475–1564), who produced work for a number of family members, beginning with Lorenzo the Magnificent, who was said to be extremely fond of the young Michelangelo and invited him to study the family collection of antique sculpture. Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, the first patron of the arts in the family, aided Masaccio and commissioned Filippo Brunelleschi for the reconstruction of the Basilica of San Lorenzo, Florence, in 1419. Medici (TV Series 2016–2019) cast and crew credits, including actors, actresses, directors, writers and more. Ferdinando, although no longer a cardinal, exercised much influence at successive conclaves. Golden Tulip de' Medici biedt kamers met airconditioning, een zithoek en een flatscreen-tv. Alum is essential as a mordant in the dyeing of certain cloths and was used extensively in Florence, where the main industry was textile manufacturing. Both also served as de facto political rulers of Rome, Florence, and large swaths of Italy known as the Papal States. [17], Lorenzo de' Medici (1449–1492), called "the Magnificent", was more capable of leading and ruling a city, but he neglected the family banking business, which led to its ultimate ruin. She occupied herself with financing and overseeing the construction of the Basilica of San Lorenzo, started in 1604 by Ferdinando I, at a cost to the state of 1,000 crowns per week.[48]. "Cosimo de Medici e l'amore per le tartarughe con la vela". Cosimo and Lorenzo de' Medici were notable rulers and patrons of the arts in Florence; the family also provided four popes (including Leo X ) and two queens of France (Catherine de' Medici and Marie de … Europe largely ignored Cosimo's plan. Elke kamer beschikt tevens over een minibar en koffie- en theefaciliteiten. Thus began the reign of Medici monarchs in Florence, which lasted two centuries. Gian Gastone revelled in upsetting her. On 4 April 1718, Great Britain, France and the Dutch Republic (also later, Austria) selected Don Carlos of Spain, the elder child of Elisabeth Farnese and Philip V of Spain, as the Tuscan heir. The Spanish reaction was to construct a citadel on their portion of the island of Elba. [23] In foreign affairs, he shifted Tuscany away from Habsburg[24] hegemony by marrying the first non-Habsburg marriage candidate since Alessandro, Christina of Lorraine, a granddaughter of Catherine de' Medici. Brother of Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici, third son of Lorenzo the Magnificent. Some examples of these families include the Bardi, Altoviti, Ridolfi, Cavalcanti and the Tornabuoni. In 1433, the Albizzi managed to have Cosimo exiled. By 1722, the electress was not even acknowledged as heiress, and Cosimo was reduced to spectator at the conferences for Tuscany's future. [3] (see Medici family tree). Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine, Anna Maria Luisa's spouse, successfully requisitioned the dignity Royal Highness for the Grand Duke and his family in 1691, despite the fact that they had no claim to any kingdom. Cosimo de Medici finds himself at the helm of his banking dynasty when his … In collaboration with the Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke Francis of Lorraine, she willed all the personal property of the Medici to the Tuscan state, provided that nothing was ever removed from Florence. He died the same month, but his successor, Pope Paul V, was also pro-Medici. Their collective regency is known as the Turtici. The following year, on 23 May 1498, Savonarola and two young supporters were burned at the stake in the Piazza della Signoria, the same location as his bonfire. Medici sono una delle più note famiglie d'Europa, protagonisti della storia italiana dal XV al XVIII secolo.Oltre ad aver retto le sorti della città di Firenze prima e della Toscana poi, dal 1434 fi [..] One Salvestro de' Medici was speaker of the woolmakers' guild during the Ciompi revolt of 1378–82, and one Antonio de' Medici was exiled from Florence in 1396. His conduct at the banquets was less than regal; he often vomited repeatedly into his napkin, belched, and regaled those present with socially inappropriate jokes. Are You Learning English? In 1736, following the War of the Polish Succession, Don Carlos was disbarred from Tuscany, and Francis III of Lorraine was made heir in his stead. This bank was the largest in Europe during the 15th century, and it facilitated the Medici’s rise to political power in Florence, although they officially remained citizens rather than monarchs until the 16th century. The Medici lacked male heirs, and by 1705, the grand ducal treasury was virtually bankrupt. The greatest accomplishments of the Medici were in the sponsorship of art and architecture, mainly early and High Renaissance art and architecture. Galileo named the four largest moons of Jupiter after four Medici children he tutored, although the names Galileo used are not the names currently used. Ferdinando's marriage to Vittoria della Rovere produced two children: Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Francesco Maria de' Medici, Duke of Rovere and Montefeltro. Synonyms for Medici in Free Thesaurus. [38] Cosimo frequently paid the Holy Roman Emperor, his nominal feudal overlord, exorbitant dues,[39] and he sent munitions to the emperor during the Battle of Vienna. In 1293, the Ordinances of Justice were enacted; effectively, they became the constitution of the Republic of Florence throughout the Italian Renaissance. In reward, Charlemagne is said to have rewarded Averardo with the shield mauled by the giant, with the dents in the shape of balls, and the giant's lands in Mugello. [9] Until the late 14th century, the leading family of Florence was the House of Albizzi. They clearly dominated Florentine representative government without abolishing it altogether. [36] At the time of his death, the population of the grand duchy was 730,594; the streets were lined with grass and the buildings on the verge of collapse in Pisa.[37]. Before the Medicis, the Turks were the only exporters of alum, so Europe was forced to buy from them until the discovery in Tolfa. The Habsburgs were deposed in favor of the House of Bourbon-Parma in 1801 (themselves deposed in 1807), but were later restored at the Congress of Vienna. Dizionario dei Sinonimi e dei Contrari dalla a alla z. a. Cousin of Cardinal Ippolito de' Medici, illegitimate son of Lorenzo II de' Medici, Duke of Urbino or Pope Clement VII. The Medici became leaders of Christendom through their two famous 16th century popes, Leo X and Clement VII. However, several extant branches of the House of Medici currently continue to exist, including the Princes of Ottajano, the Medici Tornaquinci,[51] and the Verona Medici Counts of Caprara and Gavardo. [47], The "Lorrainers", as the occupying forces were called, were popularly loathed, but the regent, the Prince de Craon, allowed the electress to live unperturbed in the Palazzo Pitti. balsamo, cura, medicina. Members of the family rose to some prominence in the early 14th century in the wool trade, especially with France and Spain. [67][68] The number of balls also varied with time, as shown below. Cosimo de' Medici de Oude (Florence, 27 september 1389 - Careggi (Florence), 1 augustus 1464) was een zoon van bankier Giovanni di Bicci en een telg uit het roemruchte geslacht de' Medici.Hij was de eerste van zijn familie die de facto over Florence zou heersen als Heer van Florence They were generous patrons of the arts who commissioned masterpieces such as Raphael's Transfiguration and Michelangelo's The Last Judgment; however, their reigns coincided with troubles for the Vatican, including Martin Luther's Protestant Reformation and the infamous sack of Rome in 1527.

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